Head & Neck cancers including the Thyroid gland
Head and neck cancer is a general term used by doctors. It describes the diverse group of malignant tumors that can occur in the head and neck region. Examples include: laryngeal cancer, mouth cancer, nasal cavity and sinus cancer, salivary gland cancer, skin cancer, throat cancer, thyroid cancer and tongue cancer. Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are the sixth most common cancer worldwide. In India, around 30–40% of all cancers are HNCs. Alcohol and tobacco use have long been linked to cancers of the head and neck. However, infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) is quickly becoming a leading cause of the disease. HPV-associated head and neck cancers tend to form in the tonsils and other areas at the back of the throat.
Brain & Nervous systems tumours
Brain tumours was ranked as the 10th most common kind of tumour among Indians. There are various types of brain tumors, some of which are non-cancerous, while some are cancerous. And they are also tumors that begin in the brain (primary brain tumors) and those that spread from other body parts (secondary or metastatic brain tumors). Anyone can get brain cancer or tumor, and the exact cause is still not known. Some risk factors are exposure to radiation and family history. Treatment depends on the location, stage, size, and type of brain tumor, and the treatment options are radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapy.
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide with a widely variable incidence between countries and regions. With rising incidence and awareness, breast cancer is the commonest cancer in urban Indian females. Almost a third of all breast cancer patients are believed to have familial disease pattern, and some 5% are believed to be hereditary, with the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations having been identified as the major genetic causes
Lung cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in India, especially for male individuals, with the burden from this disease expected to rise further in the future. The spectrum of disease has evolved over the decades from being one predominantly affecting elderly tobacco smoking men (with squamous or small cell carcinoma) to one wherein an increasing number of younger age group individuals, light or non-smokers, and female individuals are being affected (with predominance of adenocarcinoma). Most patients with lung cancer in India present with locally advanced and metastatic disease. Advances in molecular testing and radiation delivery techniques and availability of generic drugs targeting common oncogenic drivers have made treatment more effective.
GI & Liver cancers
As a group, gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is not only one of the most common cancers but also one of the most common causes of cancer mortality.GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), esophageal cancer (EC), and pancreatic cancer (PC). Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world.
Medical kidney diseases
CKD, with its high prevalence, morbidity and mortality, is an important public health problem. In clinical practice, nephrologists use their experience to estimate the risk of progression to kidney failure. Worldwide, the population-standardized annual kidney biopsy rate continues to increase3. This rising frequency of biopsies is not unexpected given the importance and accessibility of histopathological interpretation The pathologic evaluation of a kidney biopsy specimen has proven invaluable in determining diagnoses and treatment goals As immunofluorescence and electron microscopy improve the predictive and diagnostic capability of a renal biopsy interpretation30, the advancement of molecular characterization and next generation imaging analyses may further augment the value of a kidney biopsy specimen.
Kidney & Bladder tumours
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is mainly a disease of elderly and typically presents in the sixth and seventh decades of life accounting for 3% of all adult cancers and 85% of all kidney tumors. Hematuria or abdominal lump may be the presenting symptom or the patient might be asymptomatic with the lesion being picked up incidentally by various diagnostic modalities such as CT scan and ultrasonography. Urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and eighth most common malignancy in women in the Western world. The presenting symptoms include hematuria and altered urinary storage symptoms.
Male genital tract, prostate & Testicular Tumours
In males, genitourinary system formed 17.48% of all the malignancies. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and sixth leading cause of cancer related mortality .Cancer of the prostate is primarily a disease of elderly men. About three quarters of cases worldwide occur in men 65 years or more. Being a very rare cancer in the Indian subcontinent, testicular cancer occurs in< 1 man per 100,000 populations (newly diagnosed cancer). The incidence of carcinoma of penis is multifactorial and depends on various factors such as prevalent circumcision practice, number of sexual partners, prior human papillomavirus infection, and exposure to tobacco products. This cancer is more common in Indian population.
Gynaecological cancers are cancers of the female reproductive system, mainly including uterine/endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, fallopian tube cancer and trophoblastic tumour.In India, about 50-60 percent of all malignancies in women are caused by four organs: the cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries.Gynaecological cancers are often detected as a result of general screening procedures. Treatment depends on the type of cancer, stage, location and general health of the woman. The decision for a single treatment or a combination becomes very challenging, especially when the woman is young and cancer is advanced.
Leukaemia & Lymphomas
Blood cancer is a type of cancer that affects your blood cells. Leukaemia, lymphoma and myeloma are some of the most common types of blood cancer. Blood cancer is caused by changes (mutations) in the DNA within blood cells. Some types of blood cancer affect children. Symptoms and treatment can be different between children and adults. In most blood cancers, the normal blood cell development process is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. These abnormal blood cells, or cancerous cells, prevent your blood from performing many of its functions, like fighting off infections or preventing serious bleeding. Every year, over one lakh people are diagnosed with blood cancer in India.
Bone & Soft tissue tumours
Sarcoma is cancer that begins in the body's soft tissues, such as fat, muscles, nerves, tendons, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, and can occur anywhere in the body and any organ. The most common areas affected are arms and legs.
Bone cancer that starts in the bone cells (primary bone cancer) is rare. Most bone cancers grow in other organs or tissues in the body and then spread to the bone (secondary bone cancer). The common bones affected are the long bones of the arms and legs, pelvis, ribs, and spine, and more children and young adults get diagnosed with this cancer.
Dermatopathology - Skin cancers
Skin cancer or abnormal growth of skin cells commonly develops on the part of the skin that is exposed to the sun. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma are the most common types of skin cancer. The risk of these cancers can be reduced by avoiding exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Early diagnosis of skin cancer gives the greatest chance for successful treatment.
Cancer is uncommon in children. About 1 in 285 children will develop cancer before the age of 20. Cancer in children can occur anywhere in the body, including the blood and lymph node systems, brain and spinal cord (central nervous system, or CNS), kidneys, and other organs and tissues. Most of the time, there is no known cause for childhood cancers. Childhood cancers may behave very differently from adult cancers, even when they start in the same part of the body. There is a lot of research going on to discover new treatments for childhood cancers. This research has greatly improved the overall survival rate for children with cancer, which is now more than 80%.